# Potential Difference or Voltage

The potential difference, also known as voltage, is a fundamental concept in the field of physics and electrical engineering. It plays a crucial role in understanding the behaviour of electric circuits and the flow of electric charge. Let's explore this topic from various angles, including its definition, formula, how it is produced, how to measure it, and its practical applications.

**Definition:**

Potential difference (V), often denoted as voltage, is the electric potential energy per unit charge between two points in an electric circuit. In simpler terms, it represents the "push" or "force" that drives electric charges (usually electrons) to move through a conductor from one point to another.

The potential difference between two points in an electric circuit can be calculated using the following formula:

### V = W / q

where:

V is the potential difference between the two points (in volts)

W is the work done to move a unit charge from one point to the other (in joules)

q is the charge of the particle (in coulombs)

This formula is based on the definition of potential difference, which is the amount of work done per unit charge to move a charge from one point to another.

Potential difference can also be calculated using the following formula:

### V = Ed

where:

E is the electric field strength between the two points (in volts per meter)

d is the distance between the two points (in meters)

This formula is based on the relationship between electric field strength and potential difference. Electric field strength is the force per unit charge that an electric field exerts on a charged particle.

Here are some examples of how to use the potential difference formula:

To calculate the potential difference between the terminals of a battery, you would use the following formula:

### V = W / q

where W is the work done by the battery to move a unit charge from one terminal to the other.

To calculate the potential difference between two points in a wire, you would use the following formula:

### V = Ed

where E is the electric field strength in the wire and d is the distance between the two points.

Potential difference is an important concept in electrical engineering and electronics. It is used to design and analyze electric circuits and devices.